HISTORY: DATE OF FOUNDING OF THE CITY IN WHICH TERRITORIAL ENTITIES INCLUDED
The city Gomel is one of the most beautiful cities of Belarus, which has a rich historical, cultural and scientific potential, has its own unique look and style. It is the second largest regional center in the Republic with a developed industry, science, culture, an important transport hub and political centre of interregional connections. Its advantageous geographical position is promising for the development of domestic and foreign business. Gomel is one of the intellectual centers of the Republic, the venue for major cultural and sporting events. It is open to all forms of cooperation and always faithful to the traditions of hospitality.
Gomel – a city laced chestnut, tree-lined avenues, wide boulevards, ancient buildings and the extraordinary people that drop did and created his story.
We offer to your attention a story about the history and culture of Gomel city, about its inhabitants, embodied the dream of previous generations and make his hometown the way it can be seen today: nice and clean, cozy and comfortable.
Learning about the achievements and become acquainted with the attractions of our region, you will definitely want your eyes to see the beauty of this ancient and ever young city of Gomel.
Welcome to Gomel!
Our city has quite a rich history, full of important events, prominent representatives of different eras. Gomel - this is not just a geographical place located in the heart of the East Slavic civilization and a long history of development of the city from the breeding center of the Radimichi in the largest city of the region and of our Republic.
It is known that the Gomel region, as the southernmost region of Belarus, in ancient times, more suited for the resettlement of ancient people. On the territory of our region was found the most ancient in the Republic of tools of primitive people – groups of primitive hunters. The first people on the territory of Belarus appeared 100 - 40 thousand years ago in the middle Paleolithic period. The real evidence of this was found near Svetilovichi and Pidluzhzhia. The first primitive people on the territory of Belarus was found again in the Gomel region. It is the village of Yurovichi and Berdie (24-21 thousand years ago). With high probability we can assume that in this period they settled on the territory of the future city along the banks of the Sozh. However, any significant products of their vital activity not yet discovered.
The first known sites of people near Gomel are Parking lots in the tract of burnt Ales, in the center of Klenke and on the sand dunes on the right Bank of the Iput near Romanovich, dated 12th Millennium. Also during archaeological excavations in the historical center of Gomel found the processed primitive man's bone woolly rhinoceros, whose age is not less than 12 thousand years. To date, no similar findings in Europe there.
In the Neolithic period (5-6 thousand years ago) held a successful development of the Gomel historical and geographical areas. The number of settlers grew rapidly, the traces of Parking of archaeologists have discovered in the floodplains of the Sozh and Iput near Jakubowice, Bolotova, Davidovka.
The first lasting settlement on the future site of the historical center of Gomel was founded 4-5 thousand years ago. Their footprints discovered in the Park Rumyantsev-Paskevich, at the intersection of Lenina and ul. Peasant, in the tract of the Swedish Mountain, in the vicinity of the residential district "Festivalny", Jakuboski, in the areas of Novobelitsa and Volotova. During this period the territory of Belarus are beginning to penetrate the Indo-Europeans – tribes, from the depths of which, some time later, came not only Slavs, but also kindred tribes of the peoples of Eurasia.
According to one version of Polesie was the region where thousands of years ago began the history of the Slavs. Here were settled the tribes of ancient Indo-Europeans.
The East Slavic tribe of Radimichi is considered the founder of our city. In the Ipatiev chronicle of ancient home referred to as the small border settlement under the year of 1142. This date became the starting point for the city. However, archaeological research has firmly push back the date of the city back centuries.
Its citadel was situated on a Cape formed by the right Bank of the river Sozh and the left Bank flowing into the Coolant stream of Gomiuk (now Ter. Gomel Park). From the North and West to the citadel adjacent roundabout the city, around which was formed the Posada. In 12-13 centuries. the city was not less than 40 hectares.
Gomel was first mentioned in the Ipatiev chronicle as the possession of Chernigov Prince in 1142 in connection with the struggle of the ol'govichi (descendants of Chernigov Prince Oleg Svyatoslavich) and the Monomakh (descendants of Grand Prince of Kiev Vladimir Monomakh) for the possession of the Grand princely throne in Kiev.
Archaeological evidence suggests that in the 11th - early 13th century the city was developed zhelezovanadievoj, jewelry and bronze casting, pottery, woodworking, carving, weapon craft. Trade ways connected with Kiev, Chernigov, Smolensk, Volyn, Northern Russia, Byzantium. Before the beginning of the 13th century Gomel was one of the largest cities on the lands of the Radimichi tribe.
About 1335 Gomel was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, forming together with the lot of Starodub Prince of Narimanovich Patrick, the nephew of Grand Duke Algirdas. Up to 1406 belonged to the sons of Patrick and Ivan Alexander (according to other sources in the 2nd floor. 14 V. Gomel owned Podolsky Prince Fyodor Koriatovych). At the end of the 14th century mentioned in the "List of Russian cities far and near" as "Kiev" cities. In 1406 Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas, suspecting Alexander current wave and Ruthenians in the Moscow orientation, robbed him of Gomel lot. In 1406-1419гг. Gomel was ruled by princely governors. In 1419-1435гг. the city belonged to the Prince svidrigaylo, in 1446-1452гг. - fled from Russia to the Prince Deposed and Borovsky Vasily Yaroslavich, since 1452, once again in the possession of the svidrigaylo, after whose death belonged to the who had fled from Russia Mozhaisk Prince Ivan Andreevich, and approximately 1483 his son Simeon.
Since Russian-Lithuanian war, Gomel in June, 1535, was besieged by Polish-Lithuanian troops under the command of the great Hetman of Lithuania Yuri Radziwill, the crown Hetman J. Tarnowski and Kiev Governor A. Nemire. Led the defense of Moscow Governor Schepin-Obolensky, not waiting for reinforcements, gave up the castle. Under the terms of the peace agreement of 1537 Gomel was again in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the centre of starostwo, from 1565 in the Rechitsa powiat of the Minsk Voivodeship. Ser. The 16th century Gomel played an important role in defending the South-Eastern lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the raids of Crimean Tatars.
On the basis of the Union of Lublin 1569 between the Grand Duchy and Poland Gomel became part of the newly formed federated States of the Commonwealth.
In 1670, the city received a Magdeburg right.
In 1772 the result of the 1st partition of Poland Gomel incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1773 - 77 centre County Rogachev Gomel province, from 1777 place Belitskaya County, since 1852, the city, the district center of the Mogilev province. Belonged to count P. A. Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky and his sons, who in 1834 sold the town to General-field Marshal I. F. Paskevich of Erivan. In 1755 it was 5 thousand people.
In 1850 through Gomel had been laid a highway Petersburg - Kiev and Russia's first Telegraph line St. Petersburg - Sevastopol. In 1854 was attached to Gomel provincial town of Belitsa as a suburb (now the Novobelitsky district of Gomel), in 1856 granted the coat of arms of the city. In 1857, the Gomel and Belitsa are connected by an arched bridge across the river Sozh. With industrial development growing population of the city. In 1854 it was 10.1 thousand, 1858 - 13.7 thousand, in 1860 - 17 thousand inhabitants. In 1854 Gomel with Bjelica 1219 residential, commercial and administrative buildings, 129 stone and wood 1090, 5 churches, a monastery. The fire of 1856 destroyed the 540 houses.
In the 2nd half. 18 - 1-second half. The 19th century was established in Gomel Palace and Park ensemble, open to spiritual and public school; a parochial school in New beelitz. There was a theatre.
In 1873 through Gomel padded areas of the libavo-Romensky, in 1888 - the Polesie railway. With the transformation of Gomel railway hub has accelerated the development of industry and trade. Was conducted the improvement of the city, began construction of the aqueduct, in 1872, on the streets there were gas lamps, after 1879 paved main street. According to the census of 1897 in Gomel 36.8 thousand inhabitants.
In the 1st world war the town housed the Gomel transit point, the front-line workshops for manufacturing and repairing weapons, vehicles, clothes, worked the evacuated enterprises, including Brest z-d "Arsenal". From the 2nd floor. 1915 resumed the strike movement was restored or re-created the Bolshevik organization. The biggest revolutionary event in the Gomel period of the 1st world war was a transit point Gomel uprising of 1916.
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In March 1917 he formed the Gomel Council of workers 'and soldiers' deputies, and later - in the Gomel district Council of peasants ' deputies, was formed in the Gomel United organization of the RSDLP. But in April the Bolsheviks first of Gomel in Belarus the organizational delimited with Compromisers and created an independent organization - the Polesie Committee of the RSDLP(b). Since the summer of 1917 acted as the Gomel organization of anarchists-Communists.
01.03.1918 Gomel occupied by the troops of Imperial Germany. The invaders eliminated the Soviet authorities and set up a brutal occupation regime.
14.1.1919 in Gomel became part of the red Army. By mid-March 1919 elections to the Gomel Council, in which the Bolsheviks took guideline.
With the transition to the new economic policy has improved economic performance of enterprises, by the end of 1923 the industry of Gomel as a whole became profitable. In 1924 - 25 reconstructed plants "the Engine of revolution", "Red chemist" and etc. To 1926 enterprises of the city exceeded by the main indicators of the pre-war level. In the 1920-ies in Gomel acted artistic jelly the study, 15 schools 1-tier and 2 school teenagers, 13 seven-year-olds, 4 schools 2-stage and nine-year-old, a music school, 3 College, 6 hospitals, 8 outpatient clinics. In 1923, the Gomel 75 thousand, in 1926 - 86,4 thousand inhabitants.
In 1926, "the result of the 2nd enlargement of the BSSR Gomel became part of Belarus: 1926 - 31 and from 1937 the centre of the Gomel district, in 1926 - 30 - Gomel, the region, and 15.1.1938 - Gomel region. In 1940 the city's 144 169 residents, pedagogical, forestry and teacher training institutes, 2 research Institute (forestry and trachomatis-ophthalmic), 11 average the spec. schools, 30 secondary schools, 61 preschool institutions, 13 hospitals, 20 dispensaries and clinics, medical 18 points, 15 clubs, 5 cinemas, 15 public libraries, regional library, drama theatre, local lore Museum and others cultural institutions.
The treacherous attack of fascist Germany on the USSR broke peaceful labor of the Soviet people. On 22/6/1941 in the Gomel city Committee of the party held an emergency meeting with leaders of political parties, trade Union and Komsomol organizations, which set out measures to mobilize the forces and funds for the fight against fascist aggression. Thousands of Gomel worked on the construction of fortifications. With the approaching front began the evacuation. In an extremely short time from the city removed the equipment 42 of the industrial enterprises, the reserves of raw materials and finished products, many families of workers and employees. In early July 1941 the territory of the Gomel region became the scene of hostilities.
On the territory of Gomel region from the beginning of the Nazi occupation, was born the guerrilla movement, from November 1942 he acted in the Gomel partisan unit.
The war caused huge damage to the city. The Nazis brought to Germany the remaining industrial and energy equipment, food supplies, raw materials, 80% of destroyed housing. Killed more than 55 thousand residents, more than 5 thousand were taken for forced labor in Germany. The population of Belarus decreased by more than 9 times. The damage caused to the national economy of the city amounted to more than 3 billion RUB in the first days of liberation, restoration work began, they were attended by all able-bodied population of the city. In 1944, the city worked Sundays 681 thousand man-hours, cost of work performed exceeded 730 thousand RUB First began to act Gomel railway station, providing transportation to the front of troops, military equipment and ammunition. By the end of 1944 was restored 25 industrial enterprises; it was given its first production plant "Gomselmash", the match factory "Vesuvius" began to operate machine tool and electrical plants. In 1945 came into operation additional capacity at the glass factory, slaughterhouse, soap factory. Over the years, 4-year plan (1946 - 50) in Gomel not only restored the destroyed enterprise, but I built z-dy rubber Stamp, tinned vegetables etc.
For 1946 - 47 restored, built and put into operation 42, 5 thousand m2 of housing, for 1948 - 49 - 132,9 thousand m2. By the beginning of 1950-ies restored the city schools. In 1944 in Gomel resumed the work of the pedagogical Institute. Intensive industrial construction took place in the town in the 1950 - 60s. By mid-1955 the enterprises of Gomel increased the gross output, compared with 1950 80 %. Increased the role of the Gomel companies in the industrial production of the Republic. By the beginning of 1970-ies Gomel was the only one in Belarus manufacturer of radio and electrical devices, controlling devices and regulating of technological processes, peat machinery. The company gave him over 30% produced in the Republic matches, 48% confectionery 50% of margarine, 97% soap. In Gomel produced more than 70% produced in the USSR silage harvesters, 20% of the window glass and 50% glass tubes. All of the Bicycle factories of the country was ensured by ball bearings produced in Gomel. Increased the city's contribution to the development of economic ties of Belarus with foreign States. Metal-cutting machines, forage harvesters, electrical equipment, peat machine, river boats, glass etc. the products are exported to countries in Europe, Asia and Africa. For achievements in the development of industrial production in the years of the 8th five-year plan (1966 - 70), Gomel awarded the order of red banner of Labor.
In 1961, Gomel got the natural gas, in 1962 launched the first trolley. Improved material base of public education, expanding school network.
In 1970 - 80-e years in a number of industries of Gomel created new capacities. Commissioned 2nd phase of the chemical plant. The 50th anniversary of the USSR, completed the construction of the plant "Tsentrolit", renovated and expanded the production capacity at the glass to them. M. V. Lomonosov, the plant "Gomselmash", concrete products, measurement instruments, to a hosiery factory to them. March 8, in the confectionery industry "Spartak", sewing "Comintern" etc. At the plant "Centrolit", paper chemical, dairy, measure, instrument, machine tool, glass factory carried out a major technical upgrade. 2/3 of the companies of the city began to increase output through productivity growth. As a result, in 1985 for the first time in the 10 preceding years derived more than 90 % of the growth in production volume. In General, during the 11th five-year plan (1981 - 85) industrial production in Belarus increased by more than 38 % with respect to 31,9 %, labor productivity rose by 28.2 % with respect to 22.4 %.
In 1986 - 88 to the new economic conditions translated 66 of 69 industrial enterprises of the city. The move to more efficient farming methods allowed the enterprises of Gomel in 1988 to over plan more than 42 million roubles of profit. 206 products Gomel companies was issued (1988) with the state seal of quality, their products are exported to 60 countries of the world, including in Japan, England, USA, Canada, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany. A new phenomenon in the life of Gomel was the work of co-operative associations, are constantly increasing their share in meeting the needs of the population. The decision of the economic and social problems of the city seriously complicated in connection with the accident at Chernobyl (April 1986), in which part of the territory of Gomel region was subjected to radioactive contamination. Measures to ensure the safety of the population required substantial human and material resources. Established in Gomel Belarusian branch of all-Union scientific research Institute of agricultural radiology.
Modern Gomel – public-political centre of interregional ties between Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, a city with developed industry, science and culture, an important transportation hub. The city has more than one hundred enterprises of machinery, light, food, chemical and other industries. Far abroad well-known enterprises, such as OAO Gomel PO Kristall - managing company "Kristall-holding", JV JSC "Spartak", JSC "Gomselmash", OJSC "Gomeldrev", JSC "Comintern", JSC "Gomelsteklo ", JSC "8 March" and others.