Gomel in the beginning of the war


(June - August 1941)

26 Nov 1943 - an unforgettable date for Gomel, for all residents of our country. On this day, thunder 20 artillery salvos from 224 guns in Moscow was prosecutable about the victory of the Belarusian front - the liberation from the Nazi invaders of the first regional center of the Republic of Belarus, our native Gomel.

Long and arduous was the path to this significant event for the soldiers of the red Army, partisans, underground fighters, home front workers.

From the first days of the great Patriotic war thousands of Gomel, more than 70% of the Communists and Komsomol members went to the army. Remaining in the city, under the leadership of the regional and city party organizations, worked under the slogan "All for front, all for victory!"

22 June 1941 in the first half of the day under the leadership of secretaries of the regional Committee of CP(b)b Zigankova F. V., A. P. Osadchii, I. P. Kozhara held a meeting of the regional Committee. Two hours later, the same meeting was held in the Gomel city Committee of the party.

From the first days of the war enterprises of Gomel were transferred to military production. The plant "Gomselmash" leading industrial enterprises of Gomel, produces mines, shells. Here repair tanks, artillery guns, vehicles. In the shops of machine-tool plant them.Kirov was made grenades, anti-tank and anti-personnel mines. On the basis of the plant was created workshops on repair of armored vehicles, guns, heavy mortars. Confectionery factory "Spartak" has mastered production of "incendiary mixture, which was used to fight tanks. Clothing factories and workshops moved to the uniforms and ammunition.

The city has transferred to the defense Fund virtually all automotive Park, horses, forage, a large part of food resources. Premises of schools, colleges, technical schools and teacher's College was reserved for the hospitals and accommodation units.

Thousands of Gomel went daily to the construction of buildings. Around the city was dug anti-tank ditch with a length of 28 km.

The inhabitants of Gomel took an active part in raising funds for defence. Only in the first weeks of the war, they collected 280 thousand rubles., about 3 kg of gold and 18 tons of non-ferrous metals.

According to the decision of the CPC of the USSR of 24 June 1941 "On measures to combat parachute troops in the front line" and "On the protection of enterprises and institutions and the creation of assault battalions" such formations were created in Gomel. Destroyer battalions were formed mainly of representatives of party, Soviet, Komsomol's assets. The battalions were created in districts of the city: Novoe-litsky (commander - Balls) - more than 300 soldiers; Central (commander - Soloviev) - about 500; Railway (commander - Rachinski) - 360. Destroyer battalions were created and large enterprises of Gomel. So, dozens of terrorists were liquidated fighter battalion of the railway junction.

4 Jul 1941 the GKO (State defense Committee) decided on the beginning of the evacuation of industrial enterprises in the front line. Especially hard work on the evacuation took place in Gomel in the beginning of August. It was led by a special staff, headed by Deputy Chairman of the Executive Committee of R. J. Karasik.

In the short term to the Urals , the Volga region, Kazakhstan, Siberia was displaced 42 industrial enterprises, more than 80 thousand Gomel. Only for evacuation equipment plant "Gomel-mash", machine tool and steam locomotive and coach repairing plant was involved 2,5 thousand cars. And evacuate with the approach of the front to the city was carried out under continuous bombing of enemy aircraft. Since September 1941, these companies began to produce products for defense purposes. Defensive battles for Gomel began in early July 1941, when the troops of the Western front received the order of the Supreme command of all the forces to defend Gomel. For the defense in Gomel there has arrived the Marshal of the Soviet Union S. M. Budyonny. Here in Gomel were of the CC CP(b)b, SNK BSSR Komsomol.

July 24 from part of the Western front was formed Central front (commander - General-Colonel F. I. Kuznetsov) consisting of: 21st army (General M. G. Efremov), 13th (General V. P. Gerasimenko), 3 (General V. I. Kuznetsov) and air force (General R. A. Vorozheikin )

For the immediate defense of Gomel in July 1941 was created the Gomel land combat (General P. P. Korzun).

To strengthen the 21st army, which defended the approaches to Gomel, in early July at the assault battalions were created regiment of militia (commander F. E. Utkin), and a special battalion of the Gomel garrison (commander major - N. With.Isaev).

Gomel regiment of the national militia was 80% of the fighters and commanders of the assault battalions. The regiment consisted of three infantry battalions, commandant and economic platoons, a communications platoon. On his arms were mostly rifles, a few dozen heavy and light machine guns.

From the Communists of Gomel was formed Communist battalion (commander — Colonel V. A. Manevich).

Hundreds of Gomel fought on the outskirts of Gomel, composed of 151 and 132 infantry divisions, the 17th special road construction team.

Especially fierce were the battles for Gomel, which was held from 14 to 19 August 1941, people's militia distinguished themselves in the battle for Titenko, Milchu, Sevryuk, Semenovka, Pokalubichi. Go-to melcena well-known names of the militia who distinguished themselves in the defense of Gomel: F. E. Utkina, N. N. Of Kuntsevich, I. V. Light, and A. M. Gulevich, I. V. Savchenko, E. S. Shkolnikov and others.

19 Aug after a massive assault the Germans broke into the outskirts of Gomel. To 21.00 most of the city was captured by the enemy. In 23 hours the last part of the red Army under the orders of the command of the pontoon bridges left Gomel. The battle for the Factory lasted until August 23.

The 50-day struggle in the Gomel direction, the 12-day defense of Gomel has been of critical importance in the initial period of war. The Nazi command involved in the Gomel direction, 25 divisions, thereby weakening the offensive power of your troops in the Smolensk area. The Germans lost 80 thousand soldiers and officers, more than 200 tanks, about 100 aircraft, many other military equipment.